To be fair, if you don’t know what some thing or some feature is called, there’s no glossary that will help you figure out what to search for.
That being said, I gotta say that most of the questions are somewhat ambiguous, but I think I can take a whack at some of them.
This is the easiest. VCV’s “REC” or “Recorder” should fill most of your recording needs.
It depends on want you want to do with the audio file, they all have different features, but the magic keyword to search for is “sampler”.
If you mean a list of audio files, then some sampler modules support loading multiple files, which you can typically select with a Control Voltage.
Many “clock generator” (that’s the keyword) modules have a CV input that will determine the interval between pulses, or BPM. In what way do you want the tempo to change? Even a pair of simple LFOs, with, say, a slow triangle wave from one plugged into the FM CV jack of the next will give you a square wave from the second one that speeds up and slows down periodically. Adjusting the smaller “FM CV” knob will determine by how much the CV affects the tempo.
Also look up “clock modulator”.
Something like MindMeld’s “ShapeMaster” module? There are other, simpler, modules that allow drawing or dialling in an envelope. Look up “envelope generator” and/or “function generator” and pick one with a big blank window to draw in.